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An asm source code for Linux. Hello World

A 59 byte

(by brian raiter)

The final version of the program that started me off on this whole pursuit: hello world. It is 59 bytes long. This may well be the densest one here. With the program header table overlaid on top of the ELF header, and program itself running through both of them, some of the bytes have no less than three completely different purposes.
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;; hello.asm: Copyright (C) 1999-2001 by Brian Raiter, under the GNU
;; General Public License (version 2 or later). No warranty.
;; To build:
;; nasm -f bin -o hello hello.asm && chmod +x hello


org 0x68504000

db 0x7F, "ELF"
dd 1
dd 0
db 0
inc eax ; the program begins here,
push eax ; though these instructions
push dword 0x00030002 ; serve no purpose
xor eax, eax ; zero eax
lea edx, [byte eax + 13] ; 13 == size of output buffer
inc eax ; eax now equals 1
push eax ; 1 == the exit syscall no.
push dword 4 ; 4 == the write syscall no.
mov ecx, msgtext ; point ecx at output buffer
xchg eax, ebx ; 1 == stdout
done: pop eax ; set eax to the syscall no.
int 0x80 ; make the syscall
dec ebx ; 0 == successful exit code
jmp short done ; do next syscall
dw 1
msgtext: db 'hello, world', 10

;; This is how the file looks when it is read as an ELF header,
;; beginning at offset 0:
;; e_ident: db 0x7F, "ELF" ; required
;; db 1 ; 1 = ELFCLASS32
;; db 0 ; (garbage)
;; db 0 ; (garbage)
;; db 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00 ; (unused)
;; db 0x00, 0x40, 0x50, 0x68
;; e_type: dw 2 ; 2 = ET_EXE
;; e_machine: dw 3 ; 3 = EM_386
;; e_version: dd 0x508DC031 ; (garbage)
;; e_entry: dd 0x6850400D ; program starts here
;; e_phoff: dd 4 ; phdrs located here
;; e_shoff: dd 0x50402EB9 ; (garbage)
;; e_flags: dd 0xCD589368 ; (unused)
;; e_ehsize: dw 0x4B80 ; (garbage)
;; e_phentsize: dw 0xFAEB ; (garbage)
;; e_phnum: dw 1 ; one phdr in the table
;; e_shentsize: dw 0x6568 ; (garbage)
;; e_shnum: dw 0x6C6C ; (garbage)
;; e_shstrndx: dw 0x2C6F ; (garbage)
;; This is how the file looks when it is read as a program header
;; table, beginning at offset 4:
;; p_type: dd 1 ; 1 = PT_LOAD
;; p_offset: dd 0 ; read from top of file
;; p_vaddr: dd 0x68504000 ; load at this address
;; p_paddr: dd 0x00030002 ; (unused)
;; p_filesz: dd 0x508D30C1 ; a tad bit large ...
;; p_memsz: dd 0x6850400D ; also excessive
;; p_flags: dd 4 ; 4 = PF_R (no PF_X?)
;; p_align: dd 0x2EB9 ; (garbage)
;; Note that the top three bytes of the file's origin (0x40 0x50 0x68)
;; translate to "inc eax", "push eax", and the first byte of "push
;; dword". Note also that the program begins at offset 13, which is
;; the same number as the size of the output buffer.
;; The fields marked as unused are either specifically documented as
;; not being used, or not being used with 386-based implementations.
;; Some of the fields marked as containing garbage are not used when
;; loading and executing programs. Other fields containing garbage are
;; accepted because Linux currently doesn't examine then.

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