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The Ibm Pc Programmer"s Guide To C

A 200+ page guide for learn C programming

(by matthew probert)

A guide that introduces C language from the beginning with Data Structures, Comments, keywords and basic code. More advanced programming is also covered including file handlers, pointers, functions and procedures, libraries.
This article is online from 2855 days and has been seen 2090 times





(*** download for full text ***)

THE IBM PC PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE TO C - 3rd Edition


                                    
                              INTRODUCTION


The major distinguishing features of the C programming language are;

 -    block-structured flow-control constructs (typical of most high-level
      languages);
 -    freedom to manipulate basic machine objects (eg: bytes) and to refer
      to them using any particular object view desired (typical of assembly-
      languages);
 -    both high-level operations (eg: floating-point arithmetic) and low-
      level operations (which map closely onto machine-language instructions,
      thereby offering the means to code in an optimal, yet portable, manner).

This book sets out to describe the C programming language, as commonly
found with compilers for the IBM PC, to enable a computer programmer with
no previous knowledge of the C programming language to program in C using
the IBM PC including the ROM facilities provided by the PC and facilities
provided DOS.

It is assumed that the reader has access to a C compiler, and to the
documentation that accompanies it regarding library functions.

The example programs were written with Borland's Turbo C, most of the non-
standard facilities provided by Turbo C should be found in later releases
of Microsoft C.



Differences Between the Various Versions of C

The original C (prior to the definitive book by K&R) defined the
combination assignment operators (eg: +=, *=, etc.) backwards (ie: they
were written =+, =*, etc.).  This caused terrible confusion when a
statement such as

 x=-y;
was compiled - it could have meant

 x = x - y;
or

 x = (-y);
Ritchie soon spotted this ambiguity and changed the language to have
these operators written in the now-familiar manner (+=, *=, etc.).

The major variations, however, are between K&R C and ANSI C.  These can
be summarized as follows:

     introduction of function prototypes in declarations; change of
      function definition preamble to match the style of prototypes;
     introduction of the ellipsis ("...") to show variable-length
      function argument lists;
     introduction of the keyword `void' (for functions not returning a
      value) and the type `void *' for generic pointer variables;
     addition of string-merging, token-pasting and stringizing functions
      in the preprocessor;
     addition of trigraph translation in the preprocessor;
     addition of the `#pragma' directive and formalization of the
      `declared()' pseudofunction in the preprocessor;
     introduction of multi-byte strings and characters to support non-
      English languages;
     introduction of the `signed' keyword (to complement the `unsigned'
      keyword when used in integer declarations) and the unary plus (`+')
      operator.



C is a medium level language

The powerful facilities offered by C to allow manipulation of direct
memory addresses and data, even down to the bit level, along with C's
structured approach to programming cause C to be classified as a "medium
level" programming language. It possesses fewer ready made facilities
than a high level language, such as BASIC, but a higher level of
structure than low level Assembler.


Key words

The original C language as described in; "The C programming language", by
Kernighan and Ritchie, provided 27 key words. To those 27 the ANSI
standards committee on C have added five more. This confusingly results
in two standards for the C language. However, the ANSI standard is
quickly taking over from the old K & R standard.


The 32 C key words are;

auto              double             int                struct
break             else               long               switch
case              enum               register           typedef
char              extern             return             union
const             float              short              unsigned
continue          for                signed             void
default           goto               sizeof             volatile
do                if                 static             while

Some C compilers offer additional key words specific to the hardware
environment that they operate on. You should be aware of your own C
compilers additional key words. Most notably on the PC these are;


near      far        huge

(*** download for full text ***)




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